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Humanism as a approach to education and learning paradigm was being developed since the 1960s as a contrast to cognitivism and behaviorism and perception of a human being as an object in scientific inquiry. Humanism starts from the belief in inherent human goodness and contrasts Sigmund Freud's and biological approaches, which claim human behavior and cognition are determined by experience and prior events. Most important humanist authors that shaped this theory were Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow whose works were mostly orientated on understanding of personality.
Humanist perspectives on learning suggest:
One of Maslow's contributions widely accepted even far beyond borders of humanism is the hierarchy of needs in which he tried to formulate the human motivation framework. Hierarchy of needs approaches human motivation in terms of different kind of needs that have to be satisfied in order to move to the higher level of needs. Those levels include psychological, safety, society, esteem and self-actualization needs and need to be satisfied in the mentioned order.
Common criticisms of humanism suggest:
Abraham Maslow - Father of Modern Management. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
Learning and teaching: Humanistic approaches to learning. Retrieved March 11, 2011.