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Humanism as an approach to education and learning paradigm was being developed since the 1960s as a contrast to cognitivism and behaviorism and the perception of a human being as an object in scientific inquiry. Humanism starts from the belief in inherent human goodness and contrasts Sigmund Freud's and biological approaches, which claim human behavior and cognition are determined by experience and prior events. Most important humanist authors that shaped this theory were Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow whose works were mostly orientated on understanding of personality.
Humanist perspectives on learning suggest:
One of Maslow's contributions widely accepted even far beyond borders of humanism is the hierarchy of needs in which he tried to formulate the human motivation framework. Hierarchy of needs approaches human motivation in terms of different kind of needs that have to be satisfied in order to move to the higher level of needs. Those levels include psychological, safety, society, esteem and self-actualization needs and need to be satisfied in the mentioned order.
Since humanism is more concerned with personal development which can be fostered by learning than with dealing with the results of knowledge acquisition or underlying physical and mental processes, is not always considered to be a learning paradigm. Yet it was exactly these characteristics that enabled humanism to avoid some criticisms common for all other learning paradigms. All the other paradigms, when observed in framework of educational practice attempt to quantify learning and knowledge by breaking it up into measurable but often meaningless pieces often out of any context. They associate learning with the classroom and a number of hours, classes, courses, number of textbooks and lectures and finally tests and grades, but very few real life experiences fit into this concept, especially since they aren't measured by grades. This also implies that someone knows1):
Humanism on the other hand associates learning with their own needs in order to achieve self-actualization.
Common criticisms of humanism suggest:
Humanistic Psychology. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
Learning and teaching: Humanistic approaches to learning. Retrieved March 11, 2011.