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|Time line:||Since 1900s||Since 1960s||Since 1960s||Since 1970s||Since 2000s|
|What is learning:||Development of desired behavior||Acquisition of new knowledge and developing adequate mental constructions||A mean which should help learner in self-actualization and development of personal potentials||Construction of new knowledge||Process of connection-forming|
|Control locus:||Environment||Learner||Learner||Learner||Mostly learner but also environment|
|Learner role:||Passive, simply responding to external stimuli||Active and central to the process, he learns objective knowledge from external world||Active and discovery||Active, constructing his representation of knowledge using preferred learning styles||Knowledge acquisition in form of establishing connections to other nodes|
|Learning process:||External supporting of desired or punishing of undesired behavior||An active process of acquiring and processing new information using prior knowledge and experience||Active learning through experience||Construction of subjective representation of knowledge based on prior knowledge and experience||Learning can also reside outside a person (within a database or an organization) and is focused on establishing connections|
|Critics:||Ignores learner and his mental processes, depends exclusively on overt behavior||Views knowledge as objective and external to the learner||More psychologically then experimentally grounded approach based on assumptions of free will and a system of human values which are generally believed to be true, yet sometimes discredited through counterexamples||There is little evidence for some constructivist views, and some even contradict known findings||A relatively new and according to some not fully developed theory|
|Key authors:||Edward Thorndike (1874 - 1949), Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936), Edwin Guthrie (1886 - 1959), Edward Tolman (1886 - 1959), Clark Hull (1884 – 1952), Burrhus Skinner (1904 - 1990), William Estes (1919 - )||John Sweller, Richard Mayer, David Ausubel||Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow||John Dewey, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Philip Candy, Rosalind Driver||George Simens|