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research_results:modality_principle [2011/06/06 11:41]
jpetrovic created
research_results:modality_principle [2012/01/12 11:42] (current)
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-===== The Modality Principle =====+====== The Modality Principle ​======
  
-**The modality principle** claims that learning will be enhanced if presenting textual information in an auditory format, rather than in visual format, when it is accompanied with other visual information like a graph, diagram or animation.(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0959475205000459|Ginns,​ Paul. Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction 15, no. 4: 313-331. August 2005.]])) 
  
 +===== Theory =====
  
 +**The modality principle**((Tindall-Ford,​ S., Chandler, P. and Sweller, J. When two sensory modes are better than one. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 3(4), 257-287. 1997.)) claims that learning will be enhanced if presenting textual information in an auditory format, rather than in visual format, when it is accompanied with other visual information like a graph, diagram or animation.(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0959475205000459|Ginns,​ Paul. Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction 15, no. 4: 313-331. August 2005.]]))
 +
 +The idea for this principle comes from Baddeley'​s [[:​memory_models:​Human_Working_Memory|working memory model]] in which information can be retrieved simultaneously through two channels: verbal and visual. **Using both channels can enhance learning** since spoken text then occupies only verbal channel leaving visual channel free to process other visual information.
 +
 +
 +===== Practice =====
 +
 +The modality principle suggests **texts** should be presented **in audio format** (in case it is accompanied with other visual information). ​
 +
 +
 +===== Research status =====
 +
 +A recent meta-research has examined results of 43 studies and confirmed that(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0959475205000459|Ginns,​ Paul. Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction 15, no. 4: 313-331. August 2005.]])):
 +
 +  * Modality effect can be used to enhance learning
 +  * Strength of the modality effect is moderated by the **level of element interactivity** of the materials.
 +  * Strength of the modality effect is moderated by the **presentation pacing**: effect is stronger for system-paced materials, and weaker for self-paced materials((See also: [[http://​onlinelibrary.wiley.com/​doi/​10.1111/​j.1365-2729.2009.00335.x/​abstract|Witteman,​ M.J., and E. Segers. The modality effect tested in children in a user-paced multimedia environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 26, no. 2: 132-142. 2010.]])).
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