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research_results:modality_principle [2011/06/06 11:53]
jpetrovic
research_results:modality_principle [2012/01/12 11:42] (current)
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-===== The Modality Principle =====+====== The Modality Principle ​======
  
-**The modality principle** claims that learning will be enhanced if presenting textual information in an auditory format, rather than in visual format, when it is accompanied with other visual information like a graph, diagram or animation.(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0959475205000459|Ginns,​ Paul. Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction 15, no. 4: 313-331. August 2005.]])) 
  
-A recent meta-research(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0959475205000459|Ginns,​ Paul. Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction 15, no. 4: 313-331. August 2005.]])) has examined results of 43 studies and confirmed the following hypotheses:+===== Theory =====
  
-  ​"//​Presenting instructional materials using a combination of an auditory mode for textual informationsuch as spoken text, and a visual mode for graphical informationsuch as illustrationschartsanimations, etc.will be more effective than presenting ​all information in visual format, ​such as printed text with illustrationscharts ​or animations.//" +**The modality principle**((Tindall-FordS.Chandler, P. and SwellerJ. When two sensory modes are better than one. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied3(4)257-2871997.)) claims that learning ​will be enhanced if presenting ​textual ​information in an auditory format, rather than in visual format, ​when it is accompanied ​with other visual information like a graphdiagram ​or animation.(([[http://www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0959475205000459|Ginns,​ Paul. Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction 15, no. 4: 313-331. August 2005.]])) 
-  "//The strength ​of this effect is moderated by the level of element interactivity of the learning ​materials.//" + 
-  * "//The strength ​of this effect is moderated by the pacing of presentation, with a strong ​effect for system-paced materials ​but a lesser effect ​for self-paced materials.//​"+The idea for this principle comes from Baddeley'​s [[:​memory_models:​Human_Working_Memory|working memory model]] in which information can be retrieved simultaneously through two channels: verbal and visual. ​**Using both channels can enhance learning** since spoken text then occupies only verbal channel leaving visual channel free to process other visual information. 
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 +===== Practice ===== 
 + 
 +The modality principle suggests **texts** should be presented **in audio format** (in case it is accompanied with other visual information).  
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 + 
 +===== Research status ===== 
 + 
 +A recent meta-research has examined results of 43 studies and confirmed that(([[http:​//www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0959475205000459|Ginns,​ Paul. Meta-analysis ​of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction 15, no. 4: 313-331. August 2005.]])):​ 
 + 
 +  * Modality effect can be used to enhance learning 
 +  * Strength of the modality ​effect is moderated by the **level of element interactivity** of the materials. 
 +  * Strength ​of the modality ​effect is moderated by the **presentation ​pacing**: ​effect ​is stronger ​for system-paced materials, and weaker ​for self-paced materials((See also: [[http://​onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/​j.1365-2729.2009.00335.x/​abstract|Witteman,​ M.J., and E. Segers. The modality effect tested in children in a user-paced multimedia environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 26, no. 2: 132-142. 2010.]])).
research_results/modality_principle.1307354026.txt.gz · Last modified: 2012/01/12 11:42 (external edit)